Refereed Publications

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54. Koning, N., Kwok, S., Steffen, W., 2013, Post-AGB Bipolar Reflection Nebulae: Result of Dynamical Ejection or Selective Illumination? ApJ, in press


53. García-Díaz, M.T., López, J.A., Steffen, W., Richer, M.G., 2012, A Detailed Morpho-Kinematic Model of the Eskimo, NGC 2392. A Unifying View with the Cat's Eye and Saturn Planetary Nebulae, ApJ, 761, 172

52. R. Ouyed, M. Kostka, N. Koning, D.A. Leahy, and W. Steffen., 2012, Quark nova imprint in the extreme supernova explosion SN 2006gy, MNRAS,  423, pp. 1652-1662.

51. Akras, S., Steffen, W., 2012, "Distance mapping and the 3D structure of BD+30 3639", MNRAS, 423, 925.

50. Wenger, S., Ament M., Steffen, W., Koning, N., Weiskopf, D., Magnor, M., 2012, Interactive Visualization and Simulation of Astronomical Nebulae,
Computing in Science & Engineering (CiSE), Visualization Corner, Vol. 14, No. 3, pp.78-87

49. López, J. A., García-Díaz, M. T.; Steffen W., Riesgo, H., Richer, M. G., 2012, Morpho-kinematic analysis of the point-symmetric, bipolar planetary nebulae Hb 5 and K 3-17,
a pathway to poly-polarity, The Astrophysical Journal, 750, 131.

48. López, J. A.; Richer, M. G.; García-Díaz, M. T.; Clark, D. M.; Meaburn, J.; Riesgo, H.; Steffen, W.; Lloyd, M., 2012, The San Pedro Mártir Kinematic Catalogue of Galactic Planetary Nebulae, RevMexAA,, vol 48, 3

47. Velázquez, P.F., Raga, A.C., Riera, A., Steffen, W., Esquivel, A., Cantó, J., Haro-Corzo, S., 2012, Multipolar young planetary nebulae modeled as a precessing and orbiting jet with time-dependent ejection velocity,
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (MNRAS), Volume 419, Issue 4, pp. 3529-3536.


46. Koning, N., Kwok, S., Steffen, W., 2011, Morphology of the Red Rectangle Proto-Planetary Nebula, 2011, The Astrophysical Journal, 740, 27.

45. Velázquez, P.F., Steffen, W., Raga, A.C., Haro-Corzo, S., Esquivel, A., Cantó, J., Riera, A., 2010, Shaping the Red Rectangle planetary nebula by a precessing jet, The Astrophysical Journal, 734, 57

44. Steffen, W., Koning, N., 2010, Criss-cross mapping BD+30 3639: a new kinematic analysis technique, The Astronomical Journal, 141, 76

43. Steffen, W., Koning, N., Wenger, S., Magnor, M., 2011, Shape: A 3D Modeling Tool for Astrophysics, IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, Vol. 17, No. 4, pp. 454-465


42. Clark, D.M., García-Díaz, M.T., López, J.A., Steffen, W., Richer, M.G., 2010, Shaping the Glowing Eye Planetary Nebula, NGC 6751, 2010, ApJ, 722, 1260-1268


41. Gómez, J.L., Steffen, W., 2009,
Agujeros Negros Supermasivos, revista "Investigación y Ciencia" ("Scientific American" en español), 396, Septiembre 2009, pág. 30
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40. Steffen, W., Espíndola, M., Martínez, S., Koning, N., 2009,
The 3D velocity structure in the planetary nebula NGC 7009, RevMexAA, September 2009

39. M.T. García-Díaz, Clark, D.M., J. A. López, W. Steffen, M.G. Richer, 2009, The Outflows and 3D Structure of NGC 6337, a Planetary Nebula with a CLose Binary Nucleus , ApJ, 669, .1633

38. W. Steffen, G. García–Segura, N. Koning, 2009, Hydrodynamical velocity fields in planetary nebulae, ApJ, 691, 696



37. M.T. García-Díaz, J. A. López, G. García-Segura, M.G. Richer & W. Steffen, 2008, The planetary nebula NGC1360, a test case of magnetic collimation and evolution after the fast wind, ApJ, 676, 402-407



36. M. Rozas, M.G. Richer, W. Steffen, G. García–Segura and J.A. López, 2007, A&A, H_alpha line profiles for a sample of supergiant HII regions, III. Model line profiles, A&A, 467, 603 - 610


35. Garcia-Segura, G., López, J.A., Steffen, W., Meaburn, J., Manchado, A., 2006, The dynamical evolution of planetary nebulae after the fast wind, ApJ Letter, ApJ, 646, 61.

34.  Steffen, W., López, J.A., 2006, Morpho-kinematic modeling of gaseous nebulae with SHAPE, RevMexAA 42, 99-105.



33. Meaburn, J., López, J.A., Steffen, W., Graham, M.F., Holloway, A.J., 2005, Hubble-Type Outflows from the High Excitation, Poly-Polar Planetary Nebula NGC 6302, Astronomical Journal, 130, 2303-2311

32. González, R.F., Raga, A.C., Steffen, W., 2005, Numerical Simulations of the Fragmentation of Photoevaporating Nonuniform Clumps, RMxAA, 41, 443-451

31. Raga, A.C., Steffen, W., González, R.F., 2005, 3D Simulations of the fragmentation of photoevaporating clumps embedded in a stellar wind, RevMexAA, 41, 45-55



30. Steffen, W., López, J.A., 2004, On the velocity structure in planetary nebulae, ApJ, 612, 319-331       



29. M.G. Richer, J.A. López, W. Steffen, G. Tovmassian, G. Stasinska, J. Echevarria, 2003, The kinematics of the most oxygen-poor planetary nebula PN G135.9+55.9, A&A, 410, 911-916

28.  Binette, L., Ferruit, P., Steffen, W., Raga, A. C., 2003, Relation between Source and Temperature Fluctuations in Photoionized Nebulae, RMxAA, 39, 55



27. Steffen W., López J.A, Lim A., 2001, FLIERs as stagnation knots from post-AGB winds with polar momentum deficiency, ApJ, 556, 823

26. Lim A., Steffen W., 2001, Jet-cocoons in rotating Seyfert galaxies:  adaptive 3-dimensional hydrodynamics, MNRAS, 322, 166-176



25. Raga, A.C., López-Martín, L., Binette, L., López, J. A., Cantó, J., Arthur, S. J., Mellema, G., Steffen, W., Ferruit, P.,  2000, The emergence of a neutral Herbig-Haro jet into a photoionized nebula, MNRAS,  314, 681

24. López, J.A., Meaburn, J., Rodríguez, L.F., Vázquez, R., Steffen, W., Bryce, M., 2000, The formation of a multiple planetary nebula: Hubble Space Telescope/WFC2 observations of Kjn8, ApJ, 538, 233-240



23. Raga A.C., Mellema G., Arthur J.R., Binette L., Ferruit P., Steffen W., 1999, 3D-Transfer of the diffuse ionizing radiation in ISM flows and the preionization of Herbig-Haro working surfaces, Revista Mexicana de Astronomía y Astrofisica, 35, 123



22. Cantó J., Raga A., Steffen W., Shapiro P., 1998, Shadows behind neutral clumps in photoionized regions, ApJ, 502, 695

21. Steffen W., López A., 1998, Jets and the giant envelope around the planetary nebula KjPN8, ApJ, 508, 696

20. Mellema G., Raga A.C., Cantó J., Lundqvist P., Balick B., Steffen W. , Noriega-Crespo A., 1998, Photo-evaporation of clumps in Planetary Nebulae, A&A, 331, 335.

19. Meaburn J., Clayton C.A., Bryce M., Walsh J.R., Holloway A.J., Steffen W., 1998, The nature and origin of the cometary knots of the Helix planetary nebula (NGC7293) MNRAS, 294, 201.



18. Steffen W., Gómez J.L., Raga A.C., R.J.R. Williams, 1997, Jet-cloud interations and the brightening of the narrow line region in Seyfert galaxies. . ApJ Letters, 491, L73 , (electronic publication date November 10, 1997).

17. Steffen W., Gómez J.L., Williams R.J.R., Raga A.C., Pedlar A., 1997, Jet cocoons and the formation of narrow line clouds in Seyfert galaxies, MNRAS, 286, 1032.

16. López J.A., Steffen W., Meaburn J., 1997, Bipolar, collimated outbursts in the planetary nebula Hb 4 , ApJ, Vol. 485, 697.

15. Raga A.C., Noriega-Crespo A., Cantó J., Steffen W., Van Buren D., Mellema G., Lundqvist P., 1997, The bow shock and HII region around a runaway O star, RevMexAA, 33, 73

14. Steffen W., Pedlar A., Gómez J.L., Raga A.C., 1997, Jets and the narrow line region in Seyfert galaxies , Ap&SS, 248, 135-140, Gallimore J. & Tacconi L. (eds.), Kluwer Academic Publishers.

13. Hummel C.A., Krichbaum T.P., Witzel A., Wüllner K.-H., Steffen W., Alef W., Fey A., 1997, The radio jet of quasar 0153+744, A&A, 324, 857-869.

12. Steffen W., 1997, Signatures of helical jets, Vistas in Astronomy, Elsevier Science, R.E. Spencer & S.J. Newell (eds.), Vol. 41, No. 1, pp. 71-78

11. Christopoulou P.E., Holloway A.J., Steffen W., Mundell C.G., Thean A.H.C., Goudis C., Meaburn J., Pedlar A., 1997, Evidence for an outflow from the Seyfert galaxy NGC4051, MNRAS, 284, 385.



10. Steffen W., Holloway A.J., Pedlar A., 1996, Jets and the emission-line spiral structure in IRAS 04210+0400 , MNRAS, 282, 130.

9. Holloway A.J., Steffen W., Pedlar A., Axon D.J., Dyson J.E., Meaburn J., Tadhunter C.N., 1996 Kinematics of ionized gas associated with the radio nucleus and lobes in the active galaxy IRAS 04210+0400, MNRAS, 279, 171.

8. Raga A.C., Cantó J., Steffen W., 1996, The ecological balance of low mass star formation regions, in the 'Quarterly Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society', QJRAS, Vol. 37, Number 4.

7. Steffen W., Holloway A.J., Pedlar A., 1996, IRAS 04210+0400: Modeling the optical spectra from flaring large scale jets, MNRAS, 282, 1203.

6. Meaburn J., Boumis P., Walsh J.R., Steffen W., Bryce M., Holloway A.J., 1996, Highly supersonic motions within outer features of the Eta-Carinae nebulosity, MNRAS, 282, 1313.

5. Standke K.J., Quirrenbach A., Krichbaum T.P., Witzel A., Otterbein K., Alef W., Eckart A., Alberdi A., Marcaide J.M., Ros E., Lesch H., Steffen W., Kraus A., Zensus J.A., 1996, The intraday variable quasar 0917+624: VLBI and X-ray observations , A&A, 306, 27.

4. Qian S.J., Krichbaum T.P., Zensus J.A., Steffen W., Witzel A., 1996, Intrinsic evolution of a superluminal knot in 3C345, A&A, 308, 395.

3. Wagner S.J., Witzel A., Heidt J., Krichbaum T.P., Quirrenbach A., Wegner R., Aller H., Aller M., Anton K., Appenzeller I., Eckart A., Kneer R., Naundorf C., Steffen W., Zensus J.A., 1996, Rapid variability in S5 0716+714 across the electromagnetic spectrum, Astronomical Journal, Vol. 111, No. 6, p2187.

2. Su B.M., Muxlow T.W.B., Pedlar A., Holloway A.J., Steffen W., Kukula M.J., Mutel R.J., 1996, Compact radio structure in the seyfert nucleus of NGC5929, MNRAS, 279, 1111.


1. Steffen W., Zensus J.A., Krichbaum T.P., Witzel A., Qian S.J., 1995, A helical model for the compact jet in 3C345, A&A, 302, 335.



2. Steffen W., 1994, Disertación: Helical structures in nuclei of active galaxies, (Helikale Strukturen in aktiven Galaxienkernen), Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie and Universidad de Bonn, Alemania.

1. Steffen W., 1992, Tesis de Maestría (Diplom) Helical kinematical models for the jet in quasar 3C345, (Helikale kinematische Jetmodelle für den Quasar 3C345), Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie y Universidad de Bonn, Alemania.


Editor of Conference Proceedings:

2. Henney, W., Steffen W., L. Binette, A.C. Raga, eds., Junio 2002, Congreso: Emission Lines from Jet Flows, Revista Mexicana de Astronomía y Astrofísica, Serie de Conferencias, UNAM .

1. Green D., Steffen W., eds., 1995, memorias publicadas en forma electrónica, Young European Radio Astronomers Conference (YERAC) 1994, Cambridge University Press, URL: http://www.mrao.cam.ac.uk/yerac